Morocco, a melting pot of dynasties and cultures
Each country has its own history: historical facts, events and milestones that are reported to this day to attribute to the country in question its fair historical value. The history of a country is one of the events considered worthy of memory, that of Morocco remains the perfect example. With several dynasties that have succeeded each other over several years: the Idrisside dynasty, the Almoravid dynasty, the Almohad dynasty, the Merinid dynasty, the Saadian dynasty and the Alawite dynasty, Morocco is considered a multicultural country recognized internationally, with several types of heritage recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Morocco is one of the favorite destinations of foreign tourists, for lovers of discovery, the most fascinated by nature, history, the art of living and Moroccan hospitality, the experience vecue during their trips to Morocco leave them pleasantly satisfied with their stay.
The Idrisside dynasty, whose founder was Idriss 1st who made Volubilis (Walili) his capital, was the first to conquer Morocco for more than a century. From 789 to 978, the Idrisid dynasty dominated much of the Maghreb, including present-day Morocco's North Africa. Founder of the first Royal Dynasty in Morocco, the Idrissides have been able over time, to build new cities including that of Fez, which became capital after Volubilis during the reign of the successor son Idriss II and his successors. Several monuments testify so far to the architectural and religious works of this dynasty such as: the Al-Qarawiyine Mosque which is one of the most important mosques in Morocco and whose architecture is a real artistic masterpiece. After several years of rule, the dynasty fell giving way to the Almoravids.
After the Idrissides, a new dynasty began to rule and obtain shares of the Maghreb terroir : e the Almoravids. Destroying African rule before attacking the north, the Almoravids founded Marrakech in 1062. They managed to rule over the entire Maghreb and Al-Andalus and named Marrakech as their capital. After this feat, the second imperial city became the center of trade and the link between sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb. They built several religious works there, namely mosques such as that of Koutoubia, whose construction began during the Almoravid reign, Koranic madrasas, ramparts and palaces. In addition, they also built an irrigation center to serve as water for the entire region.
The Almohads conquered Morocco by overthrowing the Almoravid dynasty. Initially guided by Îbn Toumert, the Almohads declared war against the Almoravids under religious pretexts. Their Arabic name, implying the uniqueness "Attawhid", was the object of their proclamation. The architecture and culture that made two flagship pillars of this dynasty, are still anchored in the emblematic monuments of the city of Marrakech the Almohad capital, through the redesign of the Koutoubia Mosque whose architecture is modeled on that of Giralda in Seville. The Almohad dynasty ruled for half a century and weakened following a defeat against the Christians in 1212.
Founded by the Berber chief Abu Yahia, with Fez as its capital, the Merinid dynasty overthrew the Almohads by driving them out of the Maghreb. Their reign did not last long, the Merinids were defeated by the Portuguese who attacked the coastline through Ceuta and the Gilbraltar Strait. Motivated by the transmission of religious values, the Merinids built several Zaouias, mosques and Koranic madrasas such as that of Salé. Several achievements and foundations characterize this dynasty, wooden and stucco decorations, roofs with glazed tiles, glazed ceramics, etc. The necropolis of Chellah, located in Rabat, houses in it remains that testify to the richness of this dynasty in terms of culture, history, architecture and religious institutions.
Saadian dynasty or Zaydanides
The Saadian dynasty had overthrown that of the Merinids by driving them from power and initially had Fez as their capital and then transferred it to Marrakech. They had declared war against the Portuguese and recovered several cities including the city of Agadir. The Saadians took Spain as an ally to protect themselves from Turkish threats. Throughout the reign of the Saadians, Morocco experienced years of glory. It was at its peak in terms of culture, knowledge and wealth. The Saadians had acquired the gold of Sudan after defeating the African empire of Songhai. They channeled their exploits by building several artistic works. In Fez, they built the Borjs and gave a makeover to the Al Qarawiyine Mosque. In Marrakech, they built the tombs of the Saadians, the Ben Youssef madrasa and the El Badiî Palace.
The Saadians were dethroned by the Alawite dynasty. Originally from Tafilalt, the Alawite dynasty drove out the Saadians to seize royal power. It initially had Fez as its capital, then was moved to Meknes during the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismail, to finally be transferred to Rabat, which is the current capital of Morocco since 1912. It is thanks to this dynasty that the city of Fez had a makeover, thus beautifying the whole city and creating protective walls such as the famous bab El-Mansour gate. The dynasty continued its reign until today. Mohammed VI is the twenty-third sovereign of this succession, thus ensuring the unification of the Kingdom and the transmission of all religious values.
The Alaouite kings removed the Sadians. From Tafilalt, the Alaouite kings drove out the Saadias to take over the monarchy. At first it had Fez as its capital, then it moved to Meknes during the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismail, and finally it was transferred to Rabat, which is now the capital of Morocco since 1912. It is because of the dynasty in the city of Fez. had a change, thus beautifying the whole city and creating a defensive wall like the entrance of the famous bab El-Mansour. The kings continued to rule until today. Mohammed VI is the twenty-third ruler of this government, thus ensuring the unity of the Kingdom and the transmission of all religious principles.